Image on left shows H&E stain for a fine needle biopsy of pulmonary lymph node. Right Image shows diffusely positive neoplastic cells for PAN RTK IHC.
Image on left shows H&E stain for brain parietal mass resection suggesting primary glioblastoma multiforme. Image on right shows neoplatic cells for PAN RTK IHC with cytoplasmic localization.
Image on Left shows H&E stain for an appendiceal mass resection consistant with mucinous adenocarcinoma. Image on right shows positive neoplastic cells for PAN RTK IHC with cytoplasmic localization.
Primary lung adenocarcinoma. Image on Left shows H&E stain. Image right shows neoplastic cells for PAN RTK  IHS cytoplasmic localization.

ROS1 fusions concurrent with EGFR mutations in lung cancer

When the ROS1 fusion may be a co-driver with EGFR Yanjiao Mao and Shixiu Wu of Hangzhou Cancer Hospital in the People’s Republic of China noted that mutated epidermal growth factor receptor is often the driver of non small cell

GOPC-ROS1, an acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) case study that started off as a left pinky toe lesion

This GOPC-ROS1 gene rearrangement saga started out as a seemingly insignificant left pinky toe lesion.  Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a less common subtype of melanoma that arises on non–hair-bearing skin (glabrous skin), e.g. the palms of the hand, the soles of

Ros1 introduction, an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase

The Ros1 fusion partner The ROS1 gene product, that we will refer to as Ros1, is an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). The protein product will be spelled like a proper name with the first letter uppercase and the rest

CD74-Ros1 Protein Images, though wildtype CD74 is associated with the HLA complex, the CD74-Ros1 fusion is cytoplasmic

In this CD74-Ros1 blog we tie the fusion junctions and protein structure, that we discussed in another blog, to the ability to drive cancer and location in the cell.  As a reminder, CD74 is the gene name.  The protein name

CD74-ROS1 Introduction, the kinase domain of Ros1 and part of HLA-DR gamma chain meet, and 5q deletion syndrome

The CD74-ROS1 gene rearrangement is rather common. As with all cancer driving gene rearrangements, things get convoluted, complicated, and confusing fast. We will simply introduce the proteins and the genes in this blog. CD74 Aliases forthe  CD74 Gene: CD74 Molecule.

TPM3-ROS1 Introduction Tropomyosin 3, a polymeric, actin binding, housekeeping protein fused to a kinase

One of the themes of this website is that when the gene coding for the business end of a rarely expressed signaling molecule gets fused to the promoter of a housekeeping gene, trouble ensues. This may not always be the

Syndecan4-Ros1 Images, membrane and nuclear localization

Below are three sets of Syndecan4-Ros1 images. The first is of 3T3 fibroblast tumors grown in nude mice (Takeuchi 2012). The SDC4-ROS1 gene is driving these tumors in the mice. The second set is immunolocalization of Ros1 in Syndecan4-Ros1 expressing

Syndecan4-Ros1 Introduction, a commonly deleted region (CDR) of chromosome 20 and a 6q rearrangement

An intriguing thing about this fusion is that the fusion partner, syndecan 4, might have a similar receptor as the wild type Ros1 protein, whose natural ligand is not known. The main difference is the promoter and expression of SDC4

Lrig3-Ros1, Images, two variants of Lrig3, only one causes tumors when fused to Ros1

Recall the previous blog on the Lrig protein isoforms Takeuchi and coworkers (2012) found fused to Ros1 in a lung tumor. These authors detected two variations in the LRIG3-ROS1 fusion transcript. Only one, variant 2, caused cancer when transfected in

LRIG3-ROS1, Introduction, 6q is fused to a commonly deleted region around 12q14

As a general reminder, LRIG3-ROS1 is the name of a gene rearrangement that is able to drive cancer.  Lrig3-Ros1 is the name of a fusion protein kinase for which there is an open clinical trial testing a Ros1 inhibitor.  As